Filozofia Nauki <p>„Filozofia Nauki” (ang. "The Philosophy of Science") jest kwartalnikiem naukowym wydawanym w Instytucie Filozofii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego. Zamieszcza recenzowane artykuły, polemiki i recenzje obejmujące cały zakres filozofii analitycznej, w tym epistemologię, ontologię, filozofię nauki, filozofię języka, filozofię umysłu, logikę filozoficzną, semiotykę logiczną, prakseologię i kognitywistykę.</p> pl-PL (Marta Zaręba) (Bartosz Maćkiewicz) Sun, 25 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Od redakcji Joanna Gęgotek ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 25 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Weakness of The Scientific Hypotheses about the Origin Of Life <p>This paper makes a case for the weakness of the scientific hypotheses about the origin of first life&nbsp;(hereafter OoL). There is no consensus on when, where, and — most importantly — how and why&nbsp;life emerged on Earth. There are significant impediments to the scientific explanation of OoL, at&nbsp;least in relation to the accepted (meta)heuristic postulates of scientific study of OoL and&nbsp;(meta)theoretical postulates that hypotheses must satisfy to be recognized as true explanations&nbsp;and not just-so stories. Following these rules and methodologies did not help to bridge the gap&nbsp;between the most complex inorganic components and the simplest living entities. The main arguments&nbsp;for the weakness of the scientific hypotheses about OoL are: (i) there is no scientific hypothesis&nbsp;that successfully explains OoL, and (ii) there is an evident experimental failure of the&nbsp;attempts to (re)create life from inorganic components. The long-term resistance of the problem&nbsp;and the weakness of the hypotheses about OoL stem from the commitment to the ontology of repeated&nbsp;occurrences and/or from inappropriate epistemological-methodological tools used to explain&nbsp;the transition from inorganic to simple life forms (exclusively by means of the “language”&nbsp;and methodology of physical-chemical sciences). Accordingly, either the scientific study of OoL&nbsp;rests on a mistake or science must reduce the scope of phenomena that can be scientifically explained.</p> Tonći Kokić ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 25 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 O implikaturach konwersacyjnych pytań <p>This article explores the connection between questions and conversational implicatures. We put&nbsp;forward a theoretical argument to the effect that questions can contain such implicatures. We&nbsp;also present extensive empirical material that confirms this hypothesis. The article focuses on&nbsp;a class of utterances used simultaneously to express an epistemic stance toward a state of affairs&nbsp;stated in a subordinate clause and to receive a response from an interlocutor, like in the following&nbsp;example: <em>Don’t you think Peter should be going home now?</em></p> Tomasz Puczyłowski, Daniel Ziembicki ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 25 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Przynależność kulturowa i język. O metodologicznych problemach międzykulturowej filozofii eksperymentalnej <p>The aim of this paper is to analyze methodological problems of cross-cultural research in experimental&nbsp;philosophy. By studying five research projects, representing two distinct approaches to&nbsp;the examination of cross-cultural differences in philosophical intuitions, I point out the difficulties&nbsp;related to the content validity that appear in the choice of some cultural affiliation indicators.&nbsp;I criticize various indicators of cultural affiliation that are used in experimental philosophy (selfidentification,&nbsp;language) and suggest which indicators, and how, should be chosen in that kind of&nbsp;research. I also argue that some problems related to bilingualism, translation, and the possible&nbsp;influence of language on the owned or reported philosophical intuitions may be impossible to&nbsp;transcend in cross-cultural research in experimental philosophy. It may be impossible to assess&nbsp;the differences between cultural philosophical intuitions.&nbsp;</p> Krzysztof Sękowski ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 25 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Struktury uzasadniania. Część I. Infinityzm i koherentyzm <p>This paper is the first part of a series of articles about the structure of justification. I outline the&nbsp;so-called infinite regress problem and focus on three corresponding positions: skepticism&nbsp;(concerning justification), infinitism, and coherentism. Skepticism found its expression in Agrippa’s&nbsp;trilemma. Infinitism has been developed by Peter Klein and Scott Aikin. Coherentism is (primarily)&nbsp;discussed in its holistic version. I present different concepts of coherence and coherent justification,&nbsp;point out the main objections to coherentism and some ways to rebut them. General considerations&nbsp;concerning coherentism are illustrated by solutions included in the theories of Laurence&nbsp;BonJour and Thomas Bartelborth.</p> Jacek Ziobrowski ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 25 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Program „łatwej ontologii” Amie Thomasson a poglądy Kazimierza Ajdukiewicza na ontologię <p>The purpose of this article is to argue that Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz (1890-1963) could have accepted&nbsp;the consequences of Amie Thomasson’s “easy ontology”, according to which ontological&nbsp;problems are relatively easy to solve. The attempt to embed Ajdukiewicz’s position in the contemporary&nbsp;metaontological debate shows that his views on ontology should be regarded as deflationary.</p> Artur Kosecki ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 25 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Stanisław Leśniewski — człowiek, uczony. Uwagi na marginesie książki Jacka Jadackiego "Stanisław Leśniewski. Geniusz logiki" <p>I discuss Jacek Jadacki’s recent book, <em>Stanisław Leśniewski: geniusz logiki</em> (<em>Stanisław Leśniewski:&nbsp;A Genius of Logic</em>). The book presents the scholar and his work from the point of view of the people&nbsp;who knew him. They describe both his views and his personality. It is worth noting that not all&nbsp;the accounts are favorable. In the last chapter, Jadacki presents his own survey of Leśniewski’s&nbsp;achievements.</p> Ryszard Miszczyński ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 25 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 List Janiny Hosiasson-Lindenbaum do George’a Edwarda Moore’a <p>At the beginning of 1940, Janina Hosiasson-Lindenbaum wrote a letter to G. E. Moore, whom she&nbsp;came to know quite well during her research visit to Cambridge in the 1929-1930 academic year.&nbsp;In this paper, I offer a Polish translation of the document (the original version can be found in the&nbsp;Appendix). The translation is followed by a biographical commentary. Hosiasson describes her&nbsp;dramatic escape from Warsaw to Vilnius and claims that after saving her life “with so many troubles”her “desire of scientific work is more passionate than ever”. At the time of writing her letter&nbsp;Hosiasson was applying for support from the Council for Assisting Refugee Philosophers set up in&nbsp;1939 in Great Britain, and was asking Moore for a reference. Unfortunately, Hosiasson did not&nbsp;receive effective support that would enable her to find refuge abroad. She was arrested in September&nbsp;1941 and killed by Germans, or Lithuanians collaborating with them, presumably in April&nbsp;1942.</p> Tadeusz Szubka ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 25 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000